Senin, 24 Maret 2014

Pesisir

Ketika matahari pagi menyinari pelabuhan. Aku tersadar bahwa aku sendiri. Bersama sepeda, lalu lalang nelayan. Bersama ikan-ikan yang berenang didalam air laut. Melihat seorang anak kecil memancing, berharap akan keajaiban. Dihari yang sangat berbeda, sebuah tempat, dibawah kaki gunung. Ketika pagi, kabut menyelimuti seluruh kota ini. Dingin, berbeda, dingin, tak hangat sehangat pesisir di pagi hari. Langkah kecil, berlari, kembali melangkahkan kaki, kecil -kecil. Sebuah pemandangan tak biasa pun ditemukan. Hujan, dibalik jendela, aku diam, melihat cermin

Puisi "Cinta"

Cinta adalah sebuah feeling. Cinta datang tiba-tiba. Kadang dia datang ditempat yang tak terduga. I never understand about love. Love is strange. Human is a strange creature. So human is full of love. Pernah aku falling in love with a girl. But I have to keep in silence. I cannot break the habit, I cannot break a whole of my life With a new experience , with a new feeling in my new life. Sekarang dia datang kembali, seperti a new story of my life. Cinta, ..

An EXPERIENCE

Guys, Let me tell you something. It is really important to be known. When you have dream, and you really want to reach that dream. Please Run to the place exactly. What you think is what your life. When you think that life is hard for you, it is gonna be hard. When you think that life is easy, so a world is gonna be easy. Trust me, I have tried in whole my life.

A Story

this is me I wanna share a story . It is about my dream. When a child, I thought to be a doctor. At the fact, I did not have a strong intention. When a teen, I wanted to be an anime maker. By my imagination, I made some characters. But at that time, I love to teach. I love to spread a truth,the truth that all people do not have. Time by time, Those dreams changed to be really hard to be reach. A chance came to me. I did not want to be a poor lazy. taking action more than an ordinary person did. Trying to do the best all in my life. That was not easy. I had prepared some years. And now here I am. No one can hide me. I am teacher, and I love to be a teacher

Senin, 15 April 2013

The Characteristics of Low Grader ( Class 1 – 3 )

The Characteristics of Low Grader ( Class 1 – 3 )
In this case we would like to explain about the title – the characteristics of low grader-, but before we tell it more, our group will describe each word. Characteristic (according tohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/characteristic /05/03/2013 6:12) is being a feature that helps to distinguish a person or thing; distinctive.  We mean that characteristic is a unique feature brought by a person naturally which can differ among others. Low grader includes in Indonesia from class 1 till class 3. The characteristics are divided into 2, those are psychology and physical:

Psychology
The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul ((Steven Blankaart, p. 13) as quoted in "psychology n." A Dictionary of Psychology. Edited by Andrew M. Colman. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. oxfordreference.com
The characteristics in the lower classes (6/7 - 9/10 years) (http://solaangsa.wordpress.com/2012/01/28/karakteristik-anak-usia-sekolah-dasar/22/02/2013 20:47)
:
1) There is a high positive correlation between the physical state of the achievement.
2) Attitude is subject to the rules of the traditional game.
3) There is a tendency praising them.
4) Comparing him with other children.
5) If unable to resolve the matter, the matter was not considered important.
6) At this time (especially ages 6-8 years old) wants a good report card number value, without considering whether his performance was worthy of a good value or not.

Physical
The development of physical covers these aspects - anatomical and physiological aspects.
Anatomical.
Anatomical developments indicated by quantitative changes in the structure of the bones. Height and weight index, a high proportion of high-head with the body as a whole line of constancy, In the phase of education in primary schools development towards anatomical developing adolescent stages, so the development of the child anatomically is relatively quickly.

Development of Physiology
Developmental physiology is characterized by a change - a change in quantitative, qualitative, and functional properties of the system - the system of biological work such as muscle contraction, blood circulation and respiration, nerve and digestive gland secretion.

Psychomotor Development of Behavior.
Play and Work.
Starting at age 4-5 years playing construction can be transferred to various forms of movement play a rhythmic and dynamic, not bound by strict rules. At the age of childhood, especially at the grade school low, fantastic game has been given to develop a realistic game that involves movements that are more complex with strict rules.
Perkembangan Fisik.Perkembangan fisik ini mencakup aspek – aspek anatomis dan fisiologis.
Perkembangan Anatomis
Perkembangan anatomis ditunjukkan dengan adnya perubahan kuantitatif pada struktur tulang-belulang. Indeks tinggi dan berat badan, proporsi tinggi kepala dengan tinggi garis keajegan badan secara keseluruhan. Pada fase pendidikan di sekolah dasar perkembangan anatomis sedang berkembang menuju tahapan remaja, sehingga perkembangan anatomis anak relatif cepat.
Perkembangan Fisiologi
Perkembangan fisiologi ditandai dengan adanya perubahan – perubahan secara kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan fungsional dari sistem – sistem kerja hayati seperti konstraksi otot, peredaran darah dan pernafasan, persyarafan, sekresi kelenjar dan pencernaan.
Perkembangan Perilaku Psikomotorik

Bermain dan Bekerja
Mulai usia 4-5 tahun bermain konstruksi yang fantastik itu dapat beralih kepada berbagai bentuk gerakan bermain yang ritmis dan dinamis, belum terikat dengan aturan-aturan yang ketat.
Pada usia masa anak sekolah khususnya pada pada kelas rendah, permainan fantastik berkembang kepda permainan yang realistik yang melibatkan gerakan-gerakan yang lebih kompleks disertai aturan-aturan yang ketat.
(http://rockmantictrisna.wordpress.com/2011/12/06/perkembangan-karakter-anak-sekolah-dasar-di-kelas-rendah/22/02/2013 20:50)

Recommendation for teaching them
We decide to teach Low Grader with direct- practice to applicate the material at their daily activity with giving a praise as often as possible, and the class’s atmosphere should be like competition in many kinds of games.

Material
Daily activity (Do and Say)

Procedure
•    Students devided into some groups
•    Every group consists of 3 – 4 students
•    Each grup should have “special voice of animal”
•    Teacher shows some pictures about daily activity
•    Above picture, there are jumble letter (verb)
•    Students guess the word by doing the activity.


Grammar Translation Method, Direct Method, The Audio Lingual Method

The Grammar Translation Method.
       As other languages began to be taught in educational institutions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the classical method was adopted as the chief means for teaching foreign languages. Little thought given to teaching someone how to speak the language ;after all ,language were not being taught primary to learn oral/aural communication ,but to learn for the sake of being “schoolarity” .
      In the nineteenth century the classical method came to be known as the grammar translation method.
    The grammar-translation method is a method of teaching foreign languages derived from the classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. In grammar-translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language and their native language. Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written in the target language, and to further students’ general intellectual development.
    The grammar-translation method originated from the practice of teaching Latin. In the early 1500s, Latin was the most widely-studied foreign language due to its prominence in government, academia, and business.However, during the course of the century the use of Latin dwindled, and it was gradually replaced by English, French, and Italian After the decline of Latin, the purpose of learning it in schools changed. Whereas previously students had learned Latin for the purpose of communication, it came to be learned as a purely academic subject.
    Throughout Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, the education system was formed primarily around a concept called faculty psychology. This theory dictated that the body and mind were separate and the mind consisted of three parts: the will, emotion, and intellect. It was believed that the intellect could be sharpened enough to eventually control the will and emotions. The way to do this was through learning classical literature of the Greeks and Romans, as well as mathematics. Additionally, an adult with such an education was considered mentally prepared for the world and its challenges.
    At first it was believed that teaching modern languages was not useful for the development of mental discipline and thus they were left out of the curriculum. When modern languages did begin to appear in school curricula in the 19th century, teachers taught them with the same grammar-translation method as was used for classical Latin and Greek.As a result, textbooks were essentially copied for the modern language classroom. In the United States of America, the basic foundations of this method were used in most high school and college foreign language classrooms.
Principles and goals
    There are two main goals to grammar-translation classes.
o    The first  is to develop students’ reading ability to a level where they can read literature in the target language.
o    The second  is to develop students’ general mental discipline.
    When once the Latin tongue had ceased to be a normal vehicle for communication, and was replaced as such by the vernacular languages, then it most speedily became a ‘mental gymnastic’, the supremely ‘dead’ language, a disciplined and systematic study of which was held to b indispensable as a basis for all forms of higher educatio.
The main principles on which the grammar translation method is based are the following:
1.    Translation interprets the words and phrases of the foreign languages in the best possible manner.
2.    The phraseology and the idioms of the target language can best be assimilated in the process of interpretation.
3.    The structures of the foreign languages are best learned when compared and contrast with those of first language.
Techniques
o    Translation of a literary passage
o    Reading comprehension questions
o    Antonyms/ synonims
o    Cognates
o    etc

The Direct Method
       The “naturalistic” – simulating the “natural” way in which children learn first language – approaches of Gouin and a few of his contemporaries did not take hold immediately.
       The Direct Method enjoyed considerable popularity at the beginning in the twentieth century. It is most widely accepted in private language school where students were highly motivated and where native speaking teachers could be employed. But almost any “method ” can succeed when clients are willing to pay high price for small classes .Direct method did not take well in public education where the contains of budget .Moreover the Direct Method was criticized for its weak theoretical foundations.
        By the end of the first quarter of the twentieth century, the use of the Direct Method had declined in both in Europe and in the United State.
The advantages of this method is the student can speak quickly than they just write or memories vocabulary. This method also makes the students active and brave. Here, teacher has an important role to improve ability of the students. For the example teacher asked the students to telling about their experience or their true story. It can be also the teacher makes a conversational dialogue with student. It must be doing everyday to practice to get a good result.
    The direct method of teaching, sometimes called the natural method. Not limited to but often used in teaching foreign languages, the method refrains from using the learners' native language and uses only the target language. It was established in Germany and France around 1900. Characteristic features of the direct method are:
•    teaching concepts and vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials
•    teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language)
•    centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation)
•    focus on question-answer patterns


Principles   
1.    Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language.
2.    Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase; grammar, reading and writing are introduced in intermediate phase.
3.    Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.
4.    Grammar is taught inductively.
5.    New teaching points are introduced orally.
6.    Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.
7.    Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.
8.    Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
9.    Student should be speaking approximately 80% of the time during the lesson.
10.    Students are taught from inception to ask questions as well as answer them.
Techniques
o    Reading aloud
o    Question and Answer Exercises
o    Dictation
o    Map drawing
o    etc

The Audio Lingual Method
         In the first quarter of the twentieth century, The Direct Method did not take hold in the United States the way it did in Europe. Moreover, U.S. educational institutions had become firmly convinced that a reading approach to foreign languages was more useful than an oral approach ,given the perceived linguistic isolation of the United States at that time. The highly influential Coleman Report (Coleman,1929)had persuaded foreign language teachers that is was impractical to teach oral skill and that reading should become the focus.
 Then World War II broke out, and suddenly the Unites States was thrust into a worldwide conflict, heightening the need for Americans to become orally proficient in the languages of both their allies and their enemies. The time was ripe for a language-teaching revolution. In all its variations and adaptations, the Army method came to be known in the 1950s as the Audio lingual Method.
        The Audio lingual Method (ALM) was firmly grounded in linguistic and psychological theory .Structural linguistics of the 1940s and 1950s were engaged in what they claimed was a “scientific descriptive analysis ” of various languages; teaching methodologist saw a direct application of such analysis  to teaching linguistics pattern (Fries, 1945.).At the same time behaviorist, psychologists advocated and habit-formation models of learning that were perfectly married with the mimicry drills pattern practices of audio lingual methodology.
    This method is modern and has many way to learn and also it is easy to learn. Today, many media which can use, there are: TV, Radio, DVD, cassette, and the other things. From that example, the media which more easy to learn than other is TV because there is picture and translation , especially in western movie. This method can make a different situation to learn and make enjoy because entertaint.
    The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key, is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback.
    This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the direct method. Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method didn’t focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drilled students in the use of grammar.
    Applied to language instruction, and often within the context of the language lab, this means that the instructor would present the correct model of a sentence and the students would have to repeat it. The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. In audio-lingualism, there is no explicit grammar instruction—everything is simply memorized in form. The idea is for the students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. In this manner, the lessons are built on static drills in which the students have little or no control on their own output; the teacher is expecting a particular response and not providing that will result in a student receiving negative feedback. This type of activity, for the foundation of language learning, is in direct opposition with communicative language teaching.
    Charles Fries, the director of the English Language Institute at the University of Michigan, the first of its kind in the United States, believed that learning structure, or grammar was the starting point for the student. In other words, it was the students' job to orally recite the basic sentence patterns and grammatical structures. The students were only given “enough vocabulary to make such drills possible.” (Richards, J.C. et-al. 1986). Fries later included principles for behavioural psychology, as developed by B.F. Skinner, into this method.
Oral drills
Drills and pattern practice are typical of the Audiolingual method. (Richards, J.C. et-al. 1986) These include
•    Repetition: where the student repeats an utterance as soon as he hears it
•    Inflection: Where one word in a sentence appears in another form when repeated
•    Replacement: Where one word is replaced by another
•    Restatement: The student re-phrases an utterance
Examples
Inflection : Teacher : I ate the sandwich. Student : I ate the sandwiches.
Replacement : Teacher : He bought the car for half-price. Student : He bought it for half-price.
Restatement : Teacher : Tell me not to smoke so often. Student : Don't smoke so often!

The following example illustrates how more than one sort of drill can be incorporated into one practice session :
“Teacher: There's a cup on the table ... repeat
Students: There's a cup on the table
Teacher: Spoon
Students: There's a spoon on the table
Teacher: Book
Students: There's a book on the table
Teacher: On the chair
Students: There's a book on the chair
etc.”
 Techniques
o    Dialog memorization
o    Chaiin drill
o    Grammar game
o    Complete the dialogue
o    Use of minimal pairs
o    etc

Bibliography
Brown,Douglas,”Principles of Language Learning and Teaching”,Addison Wesley Longman,2000.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar_translation_method.
Purwati,Oikurema,”Setifikasi Guru Model Pembelajaran & Media Pembelajaran”,Universitas Negeri Surabaya,2007.